There are 47 PMP® processes in the PMBOK® 5th edition guide. In this article, we summarize these 47 PMP® processes for you so that you can remember them easily.
Project Integration Management
Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. Project Integration Management includes making choices about resource allocation, making trade-offs among competing objectives and alternatives, and managing the interdependencies among the project management Knowledge Areas.
Project Integration Processes
Develop Project Charter
- The Charter recognizes and authorizes the existence of the project
- It defines high level requirements and objectives
- It provides the PM with the authority to apply organizational resources
- Project cannot start without the charter
- It is not a substitute for a project management plan
Develop Project Management Plan
- A method of linking all individual management plans together
- Provides strategic direction for the project
- The project manager’s main focus is executing the project management plan successfully
- This plan must be concise and unambiguous
Direct and Manage Project Work
- Integrates all executing processes together to produce project deliverables
- Often, the project management plan needs changes. Direct and manage project work must also incorporate the changes made to the project.
Monitor and Control Project Work
- The goal of this process is to keep the project on time and on budget.
- The project manager spends the most amount of time on this process because things often go wrong and it is the project manager’s responsibility to fix it.
Perform Integrated Change Control
- The Perform Integrated Change Control process looks at:
- Which changes to make in a project
- The impact of changes across all knowledge areas
Close Project or Phase
- Process that finalizes all activities across all process groups
- Process that formally closes the project or project phase
Project Scope Management
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required to complete the project successfully. Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project.
Scope Management Processes
Plan Scope Management
- Process of creating a scope management plan, a document of how the project will be defined, controlled, and verified.
- Collect requirements is the process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs/requirements to meet project objectives.
- All requirements should be gathered at the start because it is costly to make changes as the project progresses.
- Gathering requirements from all stakeholders will also ensure that their opinions are taken into consideration, which will lead to higher rates of project acceptance.
- Define Scope process develops a detailed description of the project.
- Highly iterative process because the project team may need several rounds before they agree on the scope.
- Create WBS is the process of dividing project deliverables into smaller pieces using a top-down approach.
- The three components to scope baseline are: project scope statement, WBS, and WBS dictionary.
- Validate Scope is the process that gets your customer to formally accept the project
- The goal is to bring objectivity to the acceptance process and increase the changes of a final acceptance
- The Control Scope process monitors the project scope and the scope baseline.
- It also ensures all requested changes go through Perform Integrated Change Control.
- Activities in this process help identify variances early and find root cause.
Project Time Management
Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project. Project Time Management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the schedule management plan. Project schedule development uses the outputs from the processes to define activities, sequence activities, estimate activity resources, and estimate activity duration in combination with the scheduling tool to produce the schedule model.
Project Time Management Processes
Plan Schedule Management
- Plan Schedule Management ensures the project is progressing in a timely fashion
- The output of this process, the schedule management plan, is used to identify risks and rank risks.
- Define Activities determines the specific actions that needs to be completed to produce the project deliverables
- This process breaks the work packages into activities
- Sequence Activities process documents relationships between the activities and milestones, and sequence them logically
- It takes leads and lags between activities into consideration
- This process results in the project schedule network diagram
Estimate Activity Resources
- The Estimate Activity Resource process estimates the type and quantities of supplies for all the activities.
- The project manager must plan to avoid 1) lack of resources or 2) resources being pulled off the project.
- This process is closely linked with Estimate Activity Duration and Estimate Activity Cost.
Estimate Activity Durations
- The Estimate Activity Durations process estimates the amount of time required to complete each activity.
- Estimators take key pieces of info (e.g. resource calendar, activity resource requirements) and elaborate upon it to refine activity durations.
- Note: Project managers must never pad estimates – this is highly unprofessional and sometimes even unethical.
- The Develop Schedule process analyzes activity sequences, durations, resources, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.
- The Control Schedule process monitors the status of project activities and project progress.
- It uses the schedule baseline and variance analysis to monitor changes, and take corrective action when necessary
Project Cost Management
Cost Management involves planning, estimating, budgeting, funding, and managing costs. Although estimating cost and determining budgets can be one process on small projects, PMI separates them into two processes because the exam assumes the PM is managing a large project. Many financial management techniques, such as ROI, payback, and discounted cash flow, are used during this process.
Project Cost Management Processes
Plan Cost Management
- The Plan Cost Management process establishes the policies, procedures, and documentations for planning, managing and expending costs.
- This process also provides guidance and direction on how costs are managed.
- The Estimate Costs process approximates the cost for each activity.
- To develop the cost estimate, the project manager considers cost alternatives, trade-offs, and risk.
- Project managers should also remember to add contingencies.
- The Determine Budgets process aggregates the estimated costs of activities to determine cost baseline.
- The baseline is used for monitoring and controlling costs. Meeting the approved budget, or “cost performance baseline” is a measure of project success.
- The Control Costs process monitors project status in respect to the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.
- During this process, variances are tracked and identified. When necessary, corrective actions are taken.
Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project requirements are met. Project Quality Management uses policies and procedures to implement the organization’s quality management system, and it supports continuous process improvement activities.
Project Quality Management Processes
Plan Quality Management
- The Plan Quality Management process identifies quality requirements for the project and the work that must be done to ensure compliance.
- It also provides direction on how quality will be managed and validated.
- This process can be done in parallel with other planning processes.
Perform Quality Assurance
- The Perform Quality Assurance process audits the quality requirements and the results from quality control measures to ensure quality standards are used.
- It implements processes define in the quality management plan, and facilitates the improvement of quality processes (continuous improvement).
- The Control Quality process ensures a certain level of quality in a product or service. It identifies poor processes or quality, and look for root cause of poor quality
Project Human Resource Management
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team. All team members should be involved in the planning process even though their skill sets and responsibilities vary. Participation increases acceptance and commitment to the project.
Project HR Management Processes
Plan Human Resource Management
- The Plan Human Resource Management process identifies and documents project roles, responsibilities, required skills, and reporting relationships.
Acquire Project Team
- The Acquire Project Team process confirms human resource availability and obtains the team necessary to complete project activities.
- If the required skills cannot be acquired, the project management team needs to have a contingency plan (E.g. hire contractors (outsourcing) or new employees).
- The project manager should always manage the risk of resources becoming unavailable, and have a plan to deal with such a situation.
Develop Project Team
- The Develop Project Team process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.
Manage Project Team
- The Manage Project Team process tracks team member performance, provides feedback, resolves issues, and manages team changes to optimize project performance.
Project Communications Management
Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, and disposition of project information. This is the area that project managers spend most of their time doing. Effective communication can bridge the gap between cultural or organizational diversity.
Communications Management Processes
Plan Communications Management
- The Plan Communications Management process develops an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs, requirements, and available organizational assets.
- The Manage Communications process creates, collects, distributes, retrieves, and disposes project information according to the communications management plan.
- Its goal is to enable efficient and effective communications flow between project stakeholders.
- The Control Communications process monitors and controls communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.
Project Risk Management
Project Risk Management includes the process of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and controlling risk on a project. The objective is to increase the likelihood of positive risks (opportunities) and decrease the likelihood of negative risks (threats).
Risk Management Processes
Plan Risk Management
- The Plan Risk Management process defines how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
- It answers questions such as 1) how much time should be spent on risk management, 2) who will be involved in risk management, and 3)how a PM will perform risk management.
- The risk management plan, the output of the process, is used to obtain agreement on risk management from stakeholders.
- The Identify Risks process determines which risks may affect the project and document their characteristics.
- It helps the team prepare for anticipated events.
- This process is iterative because new risks are constantly being discovered.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
- The Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis process prioritizes risks for further analysis by combining probability of occurrence and impact.
- This process helps reduce level of uncertainty, and allows the PM to focus on high-priority risks.
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
- The Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process numerically analyzes the effect of identified risk on overall project objectives.
- The quantitative risk information to aid decision making by 1) determining cost and schedule reserves, 2) determining probability of meeting project objectives, and 3) determining which risks warrant a response.
- Quantitative risk analysis is performed on identified high rated risks from the qualitative risk analysis process.
- Whereas qualitative risk analysis is a subjective evaluation, quantitative risk analysis is more objective – it rates each risk based on known probabilities (%) and amount at stake ($).
Plan Risk Responses
- The Plan Risk Responses process develops options and actions to enhance opportunities and reduce threats.
- Risk responses should be realistic, cost effective and appropriate. As well, responses must also be agreed upon by all parties.
- The Control Risks process implements risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitors residual risks, identifies new risks, and evaluating risk processes.
- Control risks ensure the appropriate policies are followed, and monitor and adjust the contingency reserves.
Project Procurement Management
Project Procurement Management is the process of purchasing products and services for the project. Procurement management includes contract management and change control processes required to develop and administer contracts.
Project managers should create a procurement management plan and a procurement statement of work (including the terms and conditions), and send these documents to prospective sellers.
Procurement Management Processes
Plan Procurement Management
- The Plan Procurement Management process documents project’s procurement decisions, specifies the approach, and identifies potential sellers.
- Plan procurement identifies project needs that can best be met by acquiring products or services from third parties.
- The Conduct Procurement process obtains seller responses, selects a seller, and awards a contract.
- The PM team will review proposals and select a seller based on the selection criteria.
- The Conduct Procurements process manages procurement relationships, monitors contract performance, and makes changes and corrections to contracts as appropriate.
- Control procurements involve:
- Ensuring the outputs are integrated with the project
- Monitoring payments to the seller
- Manage contractual relationships
- Review contractor’s performance and if corrective actions are needed
- The Close Procurements process completes or closes the procurement, such as finalizing open claims and archiving information for the future.
- Lessons learned documents are made
- Unresolved claims may be subject to litigation after closure.
Project Stakeholder Management
Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations, and to develop appropriate stakeholder management strategies.
Stakeholder Management Processes
- The Identify Stakeholders process identifies people or groups that can impact or be impacted by the project.
- The process monitors their interests will help ensure project success.
Plan Stakeholder Management
- The Plan Stakeholder Management process develops appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout project life cycle.
- The goal of this process is to achieve project objectives by minimizing resistors and increasing supporters.
Manage Stakeholder Engagement
- The Manage Stakeholder Engagement process communicates with stakeholders to:
- Meet their needs
- Meet project deliverables
- Foster engagement and working relationship
- Increase support
- Address potential concerns before they become an issue
- Resolve issues
Control Stakeholder Engagement
- The Control Stakeholder Engagement process monitors overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusts strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.